Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) - International Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) - is one of the most common neurobiological disorders in childhood, which persists, to a significant extent, in adulthood. in most cases, by joining the school, due to the increased requirements for concentration, organization and compliance with the rules.
The characteristic (nuclear) symptoms of ADHD, ie attention deficit, impulsivity and hyperactivity, are considered so common in childhood that the diagnosis is often overlooked, and in many cases the problems that ADHD itself causes in behavior, in social adjustment or school performance, are attributed to other situations that may coexist.
Studies using neuropsychological tests have shown that there are differences between the brains of people with ADHD and those without. Specifically, people with ADHD have significant deficits in the function of the anterior lobe of the brain. In addition, it has been suggested that the malfunction of some neurotransmitters is responsible for the onset of ADHD. Dopamine and noradrenaline appear to inhibit the function of other neurotransmitter systems and inhibit the maturation and function of specific areas of the anterior brain. The role of heredity in the manifestation of ADHD is very important. Research has shown that heredity is responsible for 76% of cases. 76% of children with ADHD have at least one relative who has the disorder. When one parent suffers from the disorder, they have a 57% chance of passing it on to their child.
Children with ADHD have difficulty concentrating on a specific activity. Their attention shifts from one occupation to another and they rarely complete what they started. The problem is exacerbated when it comes to tedious and repetitive activities that last longer than usual. In general, they are drawn to more fun and instantly rewarding situations and tend to avoid tasks that require effort or concentration. Children with ADHD seem to be confused, often lose things and often do not react when their parents turn to them. In addition, children with ADHD lag behind their classmates in the ability to maintain attention by 30% or more. In practice, this means that a ten-year-old child has the attention of a seven-year-old child without ADHD. Finally, children with ADHD lose their interest in an activity more easily. Research has shown that they play with three times as many toys as other children and spend half the time with them. It is important to note that they have no problem filtering information. They know what information is important, they just have a hard time focusing on it for a long time. Growing up, children with ADHD learn to resist to some extent attractive sources, although it has not been found what mechanisms contribute to this.
Impulsivity is characterized by low self-control, carelessness mistakes and demands for immediate satisfaction of needs. Children with ADHD do not think in advance about the consequences of their actions and answer questions before they are completed. They can not wait their turn in a game or until the start of an activity. Usually, they start the activity that they should postpone or demand that it be done at that time. The behavior of children with ADHD is experienced by others as rude or egocentric, thus causing many problems in relationships with peers.
The main features of hyperactivity are increased motor activity and speech. Children with ADHD move their arms and legs nervously, turn around or get up in class without permission. They are restless and their movement is hurried and clumsy. Furthermore, the results of relevant studies showed that children with ADHD move up to eight times more than children in the control group. In addition, they talk a lot, often muttering or making strange noises. They calm down only after intense pressure from others or when they are physically exhausted.
Speech - Speech
Relevant research has shown that there is a delay in the onset of speech in children with ADHD, in 6% -35%, while 10% -54% of these children have difficulty speaking. There seems to be an improvement in the speech of these children over time. Even in older children, however, there is a difficulty in the flow and quality of speech, in cases where they are asked to organize their speech in advance. We conclude, therefore, that the difficulty in the organization of oral speech reflects deficiencies in the higher cognitive functions.